More about diesel

Archive for the ‘Diesel Injectors News’ Category

Fuel Pressure Sensor – find it and fix it!

Posted by:

Fuel Pressure Sensors –

what is it, where to find it, how to fix it if it goes wrong.

The fuel pressure sensor is a crucial part of the modern common rail diesel system.     The fuel pressure sensor sends information to the engine management unit informing it of the present pressure in the common rail reservoir.
The fuel pressure sensor is probably the weakest component in the electronic control loop. It has to do a lot of work and is prone to failure.

What are the symptoms of fuel pressure sensor failure?

Cutting out.
Failing to start
Running in limp/ get home mode
Erratic running
Engine will run when sensor is dis-connected but will not rev
Engine runs but lacks power

Are all fuel pressure sensors the same?

No there are quite a considerable few differences. There are different makes e.g. Bosch, Siemens/Delphi and Denso.
Different types of Bosch sensors
Mercedes and BMW versus other vehicles
There are differences in the Bosch types fitted to Mercedes and BMW on the one hand and the bulk of other diesel vehicles. Mercedes and BMW Bosch sensors have a different plug design to other sensors fitted to vehicles like Peugeot, Renault and Iveco for example.

Siemens and Delphi
There are a considerable number of variations in the types of sensors fitted on vehicles running the Delphi and Siemens systems.
On the one hand the sensors can have a different pressure rating and on the other hand they can have a different plug configuration. By this I mean the male plug on the vehicle’s wiring loom is specific to the type of sensor fitted. Subtle differences on the male plug have to coincide with the same configuration on the female plug which is part of the sensor.

Denso sensors are fitted to a wide variety of vehicles particularly those originating from companies like Nissan, Toyota and Mitsubishi. They are difficult to source and at time of writing the price from main dealers has tended to be high. Like the sensors already discussed plug configuration does vary from one type to another. In other words the sensor can look identical to another but cannot be used because the plug is different.

Can fuel pressure sensors be repaired?

The typical fuel pressure sensor is a sealed and integrated unit so it cannot be dismantled. In a word they cannot be repaired. Replacement is necessary. Please view   for more information. Contact person Andy Hewing

Where will I locate the fuel pressure on my vehicle?

The fuel pressure sensor is usually located on the end of the common rail fuel reservoir. It is screwed into the rail in a conventional way and is easy to remove and replace. Unfortunately the rail is located in many different places on the many different vehicles. Sometimes the rail is at the front of the engine, sometimes behind. Follow the fuel pipes back from the injectors to locate the position of the common rail fuel reservoir.

Is the fuel pressure regulator different to the fuel pressure sensor?
Yes the sensor is different to the regulator. Some vehicles are fitted with a regulator on the rail. Usually at the opposite end of the rail to the sensor. One easy way to tell them apart is sensor is 3 pins, regulator is 2 pin.

Diesel was created. Now it has evolved

Posted by:

The Evolution of Diesel Engines From Dirty and Noisy to Efficient Powerhouses of Today

The journey of the diesel engine began in 1893 when it was developed by Rudolph Diesel.
It is based on the simple principle that air gets hot (very hot!)  when compressed.
When fuel is mixed with this highly compressed air, it  ignites – no need for an  ignition spark!
But its use as an automobile engine was demonstrated in the 1930s by Cummins when he installed a diesel engine in a Packard Limousine.
Diesel engines may have always been fuel efficient and a lot more powerful as far as torque is concerned.
But they generally didn’t find favour with the public, mainly because of their noise and the dirty, smelly smoke.
The smell was because of sulphur and now that ultra low sulphur diesel has become available, the smell is no longer an issue.
But getting rid of diesel noise was not that simple. Basically the noise is caused by the sudden combustion of fuel at high pressures.
Earlier, diesel was injected indirectly by nozzles into a pre combustion area which unfortunately also allowed heat loss.
But now all diesel engines have direct injection where  fuel is injected right into the cylinder (cutting out the need for a pre-combustion chamber)

Previously diesel engines were fitted with rotary diesel injectors that supplied atomized fuel but at low pressures.
As it was mechanically controlled exact precision corresponding to speed change or other requirements was not possible.
This meant that there was inadequate combustion of fuel and higher emissions.

But it was the introduction of turbocharging that helped to achieve greater fuel efficiency and torque at a wider range of speeds than was possible with diesel engines before.
One of the biggest drawbacks of diesel had been a slower pick-up and performance which was totally changed by turbo diesels..

The development of ECU where injection timing, quantity of fuel that is being injected are all controlled electronically were again a major step forward in making diesel engines much more efficient.

However, the situation changed dramatically when the common rail was developed.
The common rail stores fuel in the accumulator rail at a constant high pressure independent of the engine’s speed.
Fuel is injected at precise intervals according to the engine control unit that sends out instructions according to the feedback it gets from the various sensors. These sensors give valuable information regarding speed, temperature, coolant and so on.
As this permits much more exact timing of fuel injection and that too at the high pressures required to atomize it, the knocking and the vibrations so characteristic of diesel are reduced.
It also staggers the release of fuel into several short sprays that helps to reduce the noise.

But though this took care of the noise aspect, it was not enough as one of the biggest drawbacks of diesel has been its exhaust.
Rising awareness of the harmful effects of diesel exhaust on both the environment and human health led to considerable research on emission control.
This has been largely taken care of through EGR, catalytic convertors and DPF.
A major concern are the oxides of nitrogen that tend to form when diesel burns at high temperatures.
The introduction of EGR or the exhaust gas recirculation system ensures that exhaust is mixed with intake air. This reduces the level of oxygen in the air which results in lower combustion temperatures, thereby reducing the oxides of nitrogen.
But hydrocarbons and carbon monoxide are taken care of by catalytic convertors that change them to water and carbon dioxide.
The most harmful part of diesel exhaust has been particulate matter or soot that is now filtered by the DPF or diesel particulate filter.

So over the years, diesel engine manufacturers have responded to the needs of the time and attempted to make these engines more efficient and clean.


A poor quality filter could be a hidden enemy in your engine

Posted by:

The modern common rail diesel engine is very efficient.

But because it works at very high pressure even very small particles of dirt can cause big damage.

different quality filters

 “Good oil is great, but a nasty filter makes it pointless”

Small particles of dirt, air, water or waxing getting into the system can spell the end for injectors, pumps or even the entire system.

The smaller the particle the greater the damage it can do. We’re talking microns here.


So the correct quality of filter is crucial. Fitting cheap,  low quality,  market alternative or counterfeit filters is definitely false economy.

“If its cheap, its cheap for a reason”

Add to this invalidating the manufacturer’s warranty and fitting a top quality Delphi, Mann or Wix  filter makes sound economic sense.

Fitting the filter is a job you can definitely consider doing yourself.There are many helpful websites and youtube videos  if you need a helping hand

Its difficult to ignore the attraction of lower price but when it comes to quality your  head should rule your  heart.

good and poor quality filters

poor quality materials can lead to damage

Diesel does not like dirt and diesel does not like contamination. Common rail is even more fussy.

Because of the high pressures they operate under common rail diesel systems are very sensitive to dirt in the Form if water, air bacteria etc.

One make of filter can claim to be as good as the original equipment fitted to a diesel engine.

Unfortunately this is often far from the truth.

When quality is poor unfortunately everyone from wholesaler to retailer to final Customer gets duped.

The Mann filter company has sampled a lot of filters and found some pretty horrifying results.

Cheap steel  rusting housings, filter materials with very low surface area and made of poor quality material.

By pass valves that don’t seal properly or operate at the correct pressure and seals that are such poor quality they won’t survive til the next service.

Unfortunately what goes on inside a component like a filter is unseen and may only come to light when the damage has been done.

The dangers of counterfeit parts

Posted by:

Counterfeit parts. Why they are so dangerous in a high speed diesel car

Counterfeit parts. Why they are so dangerous in a high speed diesel car

There is growing concern regarding the danger of using counterfeit parts in a high speed diesel car.
Diesel engines are based on the principle of self ignition.
High temperatures are reached when air is compressed which ignites diesel fuel atomized under high pressure.
Therefore diesel engines operate under extremely high pressure conditions.
This is why its parts are heavier so that they can withstand the load being put upon them.

Counterfeits on the other hand are made as light as possible so that the manufacturer makes the maximum profit.
Moreover, counterfeit manufacturers only pay attention to the outward appearance of the product, they are not concerned with the internal robustness of the part.
They will compromise with quality as well as quantity.
This can give rise to very dangerous situations as cars move at very high speeds.
A sudden mechanical failure of a crucial engine part can be the cause of loss of power, braking failures and so on.

Most of the time, however, counterfeit parts are unlikely to have such a dramatic impact.
But they will insidiously damage other parts in the engine.
For instance, a counterfeit fuel filter that does not clean the fuel efficiently will eventually damage diesel injectors.
This in turn will lead to poor fuel economy as well as higher levels of harmful emissions.
Counterfeit suspension parts will cause misalignment and these ill-fitting parts will affect other parts leading to more wear and tear.
As they do not correspond to OEM specifications, their performance will be poor and they are more likely to snap or malfunction.
Diesel cars today are very sophisticated machines with very precise technology.
Malfunction of a particular part can bring the entire car to a stop.
Further, broken parts can also cause internal damage and bring about total engine failure.
Parts like bearings, valves, belts, sensors are essential parts of the engine and if these are counterfeit they basically weaken the whole engine.
What you will face is frequent service and maintenance costs and in diesels this can be a costly affair.
In the long run the little money that you save in buying a cheap counterfeit part is offset by frequent trips for repairing.

So, what can the average diesel car owner do to protect his car from such counterfeit parts. First and foremost, choose the service centre carefully.
A centre which values its reputation and guarantees its work will never knowingly use fake parts.
Another way to recognize counterfeit parts is, of course inspecting the packing and the part closely.
However, this only works if you are aware of what to look for.
Most counterfeits are very difficult to differentiate on the surface.
One should be especially wary if there is a remarkable difference in rates as there cannot possibly be a huge cost difference in genuine parts.

The most horrifying aspect of counterfeit parts is that they are often parts that affect the safety and efficiency of the diesel car.
They are not limited merely to body parts.
This can have serious consequences and it is up to car owners to remain alert and refuse to use parts that they suspect to be counterfeit.

Remanufactured diesel parts can be better than new

Posted by:

Fixing your diesel? Are remanufactured parts any good?

What is a remanufactured part? Check out the experts view here

There is a growing realization that quite often parts that are replaced in diesel cars still have a lot of life left in them.

If remanufacturing is done properly the parts are as good as new
and in some ways can be even better! Hard to believe? read on……

For example an injector could fail with worn seals. Replace them and it’s as good as new.

In some cases it  could be  remanufactured to perform even better than the original!

Raising awareness on the part of the general public can help reduce wastage.

Most people consider remanufactured goods to be second-best, but the reality is quite different. Remanufactured goods are not just repaired, they are dismantled, cleaned and all faulty parts replaced to the extent that it performs as good as new.
In fact, in some cases their original shortcomings are taken care of to provide a better performance than the original.
For instance, remanufactured and reconditioned diesel injectors are much more economical than new ones.
Not only are the seals and gaskets replaced, but any worn out part is replaced altogether to conform to OEM specifications.

Basically, when a particular part is remanufactured, it goes through several steps.

It is first dismantled and only parts that can be salvaged are retained while the rest are thrown away.

Next, the parts that are fit to be re-used are cleaned and put through certain processes such as welding, rewinding, machining and so on to bring it to the OE level.
Then it is reassembled using remanufactured parts along with new parts where needed.
Lastly, they are put through rigorous testing to ensure that they are up to the standard.

When the assembly is dismantled down to the basic components, the underlying fault becomes obvious making it easier to upgrade it in such a way that it compensates for the fault that caused the part to malfunction in the first place.

It also becomes possible to innovate and to add the latest technology that has only become available at the time of remanufacturing.

Most companies that are known in the remanufacturing sector for diesels adhere to stringent standards and offer goods that are at par, if not better than the original.

In fact, OE, original equipment standards are maintained at all costs.
Moreover, they offer a warranty on their products.
In addition to this, they help to save a lot of money as one saves upon the cost of the core which rarely gets damaged.

There is a general tendency by car owners to replace with new parts instead of re-using  remanufactured parts.

But if one stops to think, remanufactured parts are better for the environment too as you recycle whatever is in good condition, throwing out only things that are totally scrapped.

Starters and alternators are ideal for remanufacture;  in these days of stop-start technology  these are  parts that are worn out quite easily.

But a key condition is that the part that had been originally fitted in the diesel car should have been of high quality.

There are cheap options available that are in the same price range of remanufactured parts but their life-span is probably quite short.

Quality remanufactured goods generally last much longer and  a careful search is necessary.

Generally speaking, the only way you can judge that you are getting a good remanufactured part is by utilizing the services of a service centre that values its reputation or has an internationally recognised ISO quality standard.

Cutting down on the amount you spend on diesel (or petrol)

Posted by:

Diesel fuel prices up…..Yes fuel keeps on going up…

With diesel  fuel costs soaring, saving on fuel has become even more urgent than before.

Change your driving style…it may save diesel!

A few sensible changes in driving style as well as using common sense can make a lot of difference on ultimately how much you spend on fuel in a month.

Many of us  love speed but keeping the accelerator  pedal flat till the last minute and then braking sharply is going to cost you more fuel.

So, keep an eye on the traffic conditions ahead and get off the accelerator as you see traffic slowing down ahead.

This way your car will move forward on its own momentum, letting you save some fuel.

However, if the car is stationary, then don’t keep the engine idling, immediately switch off.

It is a good idea to maintain a steady speed when the road is clear as excessive accelerating lowers fuel efficiency.

Diesel cars do not like to be over-revved!

Another way to cut down on fuel consumption is changing gears at the right time.

Ordinarily one should change gear without labouring the engine(revs too low) and without over-revving  it (revs too high)
A general rule of thumb is to go by the sound of the engine.

But the following things also make a great deal of difference in how much you spend on diesel.  These are simpler to enforce than changing a driving style that has become a habit.

The simplest is keeping the fuel cap tightly on to prevent fuel evaporation.

Lose weight…nothing personal. The lighter your car the less disel it uses

Often people leave things in the car for the off-chance that they might need it sometime.
But all this just adds to the weight.

Remember, the heavier the car, the more fuel it is going to consume.
If you are not using the roof rack to carry anything, then this is the first thing that should come off your car as it offers a lot of resistance, producing drag.

Another thing that produces drag is open windows at high speed.
Often the advice is to use the air conditioning only if really needed as it consumes a certain amount of fuel. However one needs to maintain a balance, keep the windows lowered if the weather is good and you are driving at an average speed.

But on high speeds roll up the windows and put on the air conditioning.

A small thing which is so easy to overlook is tyre pressure.
If it is low then it is again going to produce drag and increase fuel consumption.

More maintenance means less diesel fuel

The condition of your car also influences fuel consumption.
In diesels, injector problems can spoil fuel efficiency, while in petrols spark plugs are the major culprit.
Regular servicing and cleaning up air filters, fuel filters, injectors, oil checks and so on not only saves on fuel but also keeps harmful emissions down.

In these days of high fuel costs it is really worthwhile to introduce some lifestyle changes.
It is quicker to take the car for short trips nearby, but you would be amazed at the amount you can save by just walking down.
A little bit of planning is also a smart way to save money on fuel.
Instead of rushing out for everything, plan ahead and try to get all the work done in one trip.
One thing that most of us avoid is carpool.
But if you and your friends are headed in the same direction daily both of you can cut down on fuel costs remarkably.

Other than these, one can also reduce fuel bills by smart shopping.
One can fill up at stations with the lowest rates in the area.
Then, you can also utilize schemes run by various supermarkets and cash credit companies that help you get a discount on fuel.

The key is to make a multi-pronged effort and not focus on just one fuel saving technique.

Why drivers in India are turning to diesel

Posted by:

While diesel prices hit record highs in Europe –

diesel cars are cheap in India

Cheap diesel cars in India

Diesel cars prove extremely economical in India.

Government subsidies

The main reason is that diesel is heavily subsidized by the Indian government.

This has been done to keep the transportation costs of goods low.
Diesel has also been subsidized because the agricultural sector is also dependant on diesel engines for irrigation.
And the auto industry in India has exploited this to the full.

There was a time when diesel was associated with heavy transportation vehicles only, but the scene has changed very much with the introduction of common-rail diesel technology.

Traditionally, the Indian market had a preference for petrol cars. Now that the performance of diesel cars is no less than that of petrol cars, a large number of consumers prefer to go for the  diesel variant.

Though diesel cars are priced higher than petrol cars, they do prove more cost effective in terms of fuel costs.
There is a remarkable difference in the cost of diesel and petrol in India with diesel costing only about two thirds the cost of petrol.

Of course, whether you recover the difference in primary cost of the car depends on how many miles you drive.
Diesels also demand more maintenance, especially regular and timely cleaning of its filters.

In fact, the bigger cars are mainly available in diesel because of its greater sturdiness.
The condition of roads in India is not in a very admirable state!  so  diesel’s extra durability comes in handy.

Further, speed levels in India are lower as compared to Europe.

When you add the low cost of diesel in India to the greater fuel efficiency, most consumers are willing to ignore any minor problems that come up in diesel cars.

This is especially true for people who need to drive long distances frequently.

As far as emission controls in India for diesel cars are concerned, regulations at par with Euro 4 are in place for the major metropolitan cities.

For the rest of the country, Euro 3 levels are expected, though eventually the government plans on Euro 4 for the whole country.
This has led to the introduction of advanced technology in diesel cars in India. This has also meant an increase in the cost of the car.

The average Indian consumer prefers hatchbacks in these days of growing nuclear families in cities, followed by sedans.
On the other hand, there is a preference for the bigger diesel cars only as a status symbol and limited to the rich only.

Other than the Indian players like Tata, Maruti, Hindustan and Mahindra you have the major international automobile companies like Fiat, Hyundai, Ford, Chevrolet, Volkswagen, Skoda, GM, Nissan, Audi, Honda, Toyota, Mercedes and so on  vying for the Indian diesel car market.

However, Maruti and Tata, have models at the entry level and therefore  remain the first choice of Indians. Mahindra is more known in the Jeep and SUV segments than small passenger cars.

The market for a cheap diesel car in India is booming with the average Indian more concerned with fuel economy than performance.

Are modern diesel engines less reliable than their ancestors?

Posted by:

There are a lot of good things about modern diesel engines.

New diesel engines use the common rail diesel system.
Put simply this is a high pressure system which results in better fuel usage.

common rail diesel

The setup

Common rail diesel engines have been developed to meet stricter emissions regulations brought in in the USA and Europe.

Another modification in new diesel engines is the addition of a Diesel Particulate Filter.
The aim of this filter is to remove or reduce the tiny diesel particulates from the exhaust which would otherwise go into the atmosphere.

‘Old’ diesel engines used diesel high in sulphur.

This high-sulphur fuel was good for engine protection (good lubrication) but a disaster for the environment.
It added to acid-rain and breathing problems.

diesel causes acid rain
Sulfur has been reduced in diesel fuel (probably adding to the cost) but reducing environmental impact.


Modern diesel engines are machined to much closer tolerances and have better lubricating systems.
Today’s diesel engine has an expected lifespan of  a quarter of a million miles or more.


Earlier diesel engines needed recon at 100k miles.
New oils and better quality control have helped to push reliability much further in today’s common rail diesel engine.
Parts are machined to much closer tolerances (less variation)  and electronic control means better timing and better control.

Biodiesel – what's all the fuss about?

Posted by:  /  Tags: , , ,

Biodiesel – harnessing power from the soil below our feet

Why Biodiesel?
Rising levels of air pollution and their consequences have led to much concern about reducing fuel emissions.
Other than improved combustion in vehicles, the possibility of using fuel that leads to less carbon emissions has also been explored.
One of the options that has showed promising results is biodiesel.

biodiesel, alternative to fossil fuel

Biodiesel is renewable

What is Biodiesel?
In simplest terms biodiesel can be described as an environment-friendly fuel that leads to less harmful emissions.
It is made from oils extracted from plants and animals like rapeseed, soy, flax, algae, palm oil and so on.
Blended with diesel, it can be used without making any special modifications to existing diesel engines.
Biodiesel can also be used singly as fuel without changes to diesel engine designs.

Fossil fuels are not carbon neutral
Fossil fuels such as coal, petroleum, diesel, natural gas, on the other hand,  are naturally formed over centuries from the remains of prehistoric animals and plants and so on.
Thus it goes without saying that these are limited in availability as against biodiesel which can be made from harvested crops.

biodiesel, fossil fuel diesel, diesel

Carbon Matters

Bio-diesel is cleaner diesel
But the major difference between the two is the impact that they have on the environment.
Diesel fuel is a leading culprit of carbon dioxide emissions along with sulphur dioxide, carbon monoxide and hydrocarbons.
However biodiesel gives out considerably less carbon monoxide and hydrocarbons, with no sulphur dioxide at all.
This makes them more environment friendly though the amount of carbon dioxide released in the atmosphere is same for diesel and biodiesel.
We all know that we breathe in oxygen and breathe out carbon dioxide.

This colorless gas is also emitted during combustion of fuel, generation of power, decay of organic material and volcano eruptions.
It is found in the atmosphere in low volumes and helps to maintain the needed temperatures for survival of life on earth.
The problem arises when increased levels of carbon dioxide in the atmosphere lead to a rise in global temperatures.

Carbon dioxide or CO2 is described as a greenhouse gas because it absorbs heat and infra red rays from the sun and then releases them into  the atmosphere instead of letting it escape to space.
Unfortunately human activities have contributed to higher carbon dioxide concentration in the atmosphere. This in turn has led to higher temperatures and global warming.

Nature has its own way of balancing out and traditionally excess carbon dioxide has been eliminated from the atmosphere through photosynthesis by plants and by absorption into oceans.
Some scientisits say  carbon dioxide emissions today far exceed nature’s capacity to remove it from the atmosphere. Thus, they argue, it is up to humans to make conscious efforts to reduce carbon dioxide levels in the atmosphere.

Among the several methods that can be used to reduce carbon dioxide in the atmosphere is planting more trees, arresting deforestation and reducing carbon dioxide emissions.

Carbon neutral – what’s that about then?    Is Biodiesel carbon neutral?

Since a major portion of carbon emissions comes from combustion of fuel by diesel engines, a lot of emphasis is placed on fuel that is carbon neutral.
Carbon neutral does not mean that it does not release any carbon dioxide in the atmosphere. It simply means that we try to eliminate at least the same amount of carbon dioxide as we set free in the atmosphere.

So how is biodiesel carbon neutral?
Biodiesel is made from crops which means that though on the one hands it releases carbon dioxide when it is burnt.
But on the other hand, the plants that are grown as crops to make biodiesel remove carbon dioxide from the atmosphere through photosynthesis. Thus, it gets balanced out.

Biodiesel may be a better option as far as the environment is concerned but a major concern for car owners is what effect does it have on a diesel engine. Biodiesel that is made to professional standards is as good as ordinary diesel. In fact, it acts as a cleaning agent and any dirt left in the engine by petro diesel will be cleaned out. There is one modification that has to be made and that is remove rubber parts that come in contact with biodiesel as it dissolves them. They can be replaced with synthetic rubber or teflon parts.

In all, biodiesel has come up as a great alternative to diesel and diesel engine manufacturers today have begun to offer the same warranty for their products regardless of whether consumers use diesel or bio-diesel.

The only way is Essex – the only car is Ford! But Petrol or diesel?

Posted by:

Essex is the county for Ford; it always has been.  But which way is Ford going right now?

Is Ford dedicated to diesel or is it petrol power that it wants to champion?

You could be forgiven for  thinking that Ford  has a foot in  both the Petrol and Diesel  camps.

Dagenham and Dunton

Down in  Dagenham Essex,  Ford build  1 million diesel engines per year! Meanwhile  just up the road at Dunton in Essex

ford eco boost engine

Eco-Boost Engine

Ford engineers and technical wizards are responsible for Ford’s  new engine,  the 1 litre eco-boost.

The Eco-boost engine

This is a petrol engine with the  emphasis on small – it’s just 999cc – low emissions,  high economy.
All three of these credentials are needed if Ford is to show itself as a ‘green’ car company.

Is it petrol or diesel?  The pendulum swings backwards and forwards between these two fuels.
Recently the number diesel cars over took the petrol ones in terms of number sold but is that a good thing?

Diesel and Petrol

Diesel produces less CO2 than petrol, but twice the level of harmful oxides of nitrogen (NOx) and 22 times more particulates!

Particulates are minute specs of carbon which when released into the air can be inhaled deep into the respirtory system.
Some scientists claim they cause a considerable number of premature deaths in the UK and elsewhere.
Some claim that this is a poisonous, invisible smog  and not enough is being done to combat it
Enter Ford with the 1 liter eco-boost engine. It’s a 3 cylinder engine with 999cc and producing 123 brake horse power. Added to these are fuel economy and low emissions.

30 years ago Ford’s 2 litre overhead cam engine produced about 80 bhp;
times have changed but how have these improvements been achieved?

How is the economy achieved?

diesel and petrol engines

Twin variable cams

How is it that an engine half the size of the 1980’s 2 litre  can produce around 54% more power? There are 3 important features of the eco boost engine which make it perform so well.
First of all it is turbo charged. . working off the exhaust gases the turbo rams more air into the engine. Increasing the oxygen in this way makes the engine work more efficiently

Turbocharger 21st century style

And the turbo charger is electronically controlled. This means that it is more accurate. It delivers the correct amount of air at the correct time in the engine’s cycle.

Secondly it is fuel injected but the injection is direct-injection.

Direct fuel injection

Fuel is sprayed directly into the cylinder and under high pressure.
This means minute droplets of fuel entering the combustion chamber directly and not through a manifold. The result:  the fuel is metered more  efficiently and combustion is  more

Variable cam timing

The third important feature is variable-cam timing.
The camshaft is part of the engine’s programming.
It tells the valves when to open and shut.
In the 1980’s engine the cam was in a fixed position regardless of engine speed.
The eco boost is a twin variable-camshaft configuration; this allows finer control under varying engine conditions and is another powerful way of increasing efficiency.

Ford has a lot to gain by appearing as a green car company.
It wants to sell a lot of cars and in order to achive this it must move towards ever greater efficiency in the engine department.